Home Application Water Resources

Water Resources

RS imagery with wide range, short cycle, high resolution and abundant information is enabled to provide comprehensive, objective, accurate and quick information of rivers, reservoirs, lakes and other surface waters.

An Urgent Issue of Monitoring and Protecting the Fresh Waters

Despite the huge amount of waters, only a few are left for the direct use of our production and living. Globally, fresh water resources accounts only 2.5% of the total water resources, while over 70% of them is frozen in the Antarctic and Arctic ice sheets which is unavailable for us. Only partial waters from rivers, lakes and groundwater are usable, which accounts for about 0.26% of total supplying waters of the earth.

The distribution of global freshwater resources is uneven. 60% freshwater is shared among Brazil, Russia, Canada, China, the United States, Indonesia, India, Colombia and Congo.40% of the world’s population in 80 countries and regions are suffering water shortages.1.5 billion people in more than 80 countries are facing lacks of fresh water, 26 of which with 300 million people are living without sufficient water. It is forecasted that 3 billion people are expected to loss water supply by 2025, with over 40 countries and regions involved.

The decreasing water shortage is accompanied by large-scale water pollution and deterioration of water quality. The water pollution mainly comes from the sewage, gases and residue caused by human activities. The world currently emits 426 billion tons of the sewage each year, with 550 billion m³ polluted water amounted to over 14% of the global runoff. According to the statistics from the U.N., about 40% of the steady flow of global rivers has been polluted.

 

It’s no longer a matter of resources, but a major strategic issue concerning the national economy, social sustainable development, and the long-term stability.

 

Unique Advantages

Satellite RS imagery has unique advantages in water resources management and protection.

1.RS imagery with wide range, short cycle, high resolution and abundant information is enabled to provide comprehensive, objective, accurate and quick information of rivers, reservoirs, lakes and other surface waters.

2.High-efficiency handling of emergencies and disasters, quick and accurate filming of the affected areas; and valuable information for rescuers are available.

3.A real-time monitoring of water conservancy facilities, reservoirs and dams is available. The significant superiority in real-time monitoring of flood control & drought resistance, water resources investigation, water conservancy facilities, and environmental restrictions breakthrough.

 

Extensive Application

The satellite RS imagery with wide range, short cycle, high resolution and abundant information provides comprehensive, objective, accurate and quick information of rivers, reservoirs, lakes and other surface waters.

1.Water ResourcesManagement

(1)Surface Water Investigation

The RS imagery can be utilized to obtain a comprehensive, objective and accurate info of rivers, reservoirs, lakes and surface waters in a short period. It’s able to reach out for places that are inaccessible through a traditional method. RS technique overcomes the disadvantages of high expense, long period, and low efficiency of the traditional means.

(2)Dynamic Monitoring of Surface Waters

The features and changing process of the ground coverage can be qualitatively or quantitatively conducted by the comparative analysis of the periodical RS images acquired. And the dynamic data of lake surfaces in recent years is able to be obtained by extracting the lake surface distribution according to the periodical RS images.

The analysis and processing of periodical RS imagery intuitively acquaints us with the geological body and structure as well as other visible ground phenomena related to the hydrogeological conditions, so as to analyze its reflections and changes.

(3)Snow Coverage Survey

Snow cover is a main fresh water resource of the earth. Due to the limited distribution of meteorological stations that are mainly depended on by the traditional monitoring, it’s always finite to judge the snow coverage only by analyzing their meteorological records. With the RS techniques in the wake, the satellite RS data has stepped up to be an indispensable tool in snow monitoring, which plays an essential role in the snow disasters monitoring and analysis in winter.

(4)Wetland Resources Investigation

A piece of wetland is a unique ecosystem formed by the interaction of lands and waters of the earth, also a diverse natural landscape and an essential environment for human survival. A real-time monitoring for the wetland species and quantities is significant in providing the first-hand materials for wetlands protection. The RS technique serves as a competitive means in wetland research with its wide-scope observation, abundant information, quick information accessing, short refreshing cycle, labor-saving and less human interference,

(5)Water Environment Monitoring

The task of water monitoring is to obtain factors such as distribution, sediments, organic matters, chemical pollution status, depth & temperature of waters by analyzing the RS images, to further evaluate the regional water resources and environment, facilitating decisions of the relevant departments such as the environment, water conservancy, transportation, shipping, etc. The RS imagery can also be applied to quickly detect the types, distribution, and affecting areas of the pollutants. The spectral patterns of the water bodies and pollutants are adopted to conduct a monitoring and evaluation of the water environment by the RS information.

(6)Water Eutrophication Monitoring

The water eutrophication RS monitoring is based on the analysis of relationships between spectral patterns formed by water reflection, absorption and scattered solar radiation, and the concentration of eutrophic water quality parameters, to establish a quantitative RS inversion model of eutrophic water quality parameters and analyze the correlation between the water quality parameters, so as to set up a relevant eutrophication evaluation model. The satellite RS is applied for a rapid, cost-efficient collection of spatial distribution and dynamic evaluation of wide-range eutrophic lakes and oceans which is also easy for a long-term dynamic monitoring. Moreover, it assists to discover the inaccessible features of source, diffusion and migration direction and scope.

(7)Oil Pollution

Oil pollution RS monitoring can be applied to discover the pollution sources, locate the pollution area and to estimate the oil content. The diffusion direction and speed of the spilling oil can be acquired by the constant monitoring, so as to predict the affected area.

(8)Thermal Pollution

The thermal pollution is caused by the increased ambient water temperature due to the “Waste Heat” from human activities. It directly leads to the regional ecosystem destructed by the decreasing diversity of aquatic lives, throwing threats to our production and living quality. The thermal pollution RS monitoring is an effective monitoring with macro prospective, such as the thermal infrared RS and microwave RS.

2.Hydraulic Engineering Monitoring

(1)Project Location

The RS is used to extract the information such as topography, geomorphology, lithology, soil and vegetation, offering the first-hand data for site option and planning of projects; to analyze and evaluate the feasibility and optimize the optional location and routes of projects; to pre-assess the environmental impacts of water conservancy; to  calculate the compensating area for migration and land acquisition by extracting and categorizing RS images.

(2)Project Progress Monitoring

Real-time supervision of the project and the real-time environmental monitoring will be conducted.

(3)Engineering Benefit Evaluation

The RS technique is applied to investigate the direct impacts of water conservancy projects: monitoring the crops growth of an irrigation area, and the actual water conservation capacity after the dam building.

3. Flood Prevention and Drought Control

(1)Floods Monitoring

RS is a high-repetition, large-range, synchronous information collector of the underlying surface, able to provide deciders with massive background information and instant messages during the flood.

(2)Post-flood Assessment and Reconstruction

Combined with digital terrain model, the RS imagery can be applied to extract the affecting areas, duration, and flood depth, so as to assess the damages to the involved farmlands (paddy fields and dry lands), residential areas, towns, railways, industrial zones, and to finally evaluate the victims and damaged buildings in the affected area.

(3)Drought Monitoring

Parameters such as surface evaporation capacity, surface temperature, calorific capacity and moisture content of soils, and also plant water stress and leaf water content can be acquired by the RS method, so as to analyze the soils water content, water shortage, water supply, vegetation indexes and other indicators that reflect the crops growing situation.

The standard luminous (nighttime) images are standard sub-meter products collected by Jilin-1 constellation, corrected and calibrated by radiation and sensors. RPC models and metadata files are available in the general tiff format.
A standard video imagery is a standard video acquired by Jilin-1 constellation, which has a resolution less than 0.9m after being processed through image stabilizing and framing. Products in both avi and mov data formats are provided.
The standard optical static image is a standard sub-meter product collected by Jilin-1 constellation, which is corrected and calibrated by radiation and sensors. RPC models and metadata files are available in the general tiff format.

Remote Sensing