8 views 2018-07-10 23:36:48
According to latest BBC news, Russia, host of the 2018 FIFA World Cup, has spent 19 billion dollars on building super stadiums for the world-focused football event, generally in line with the 660 billion rubles (around 20.6b dollars) Russia’s Prime Minister Medvedev claimed in 2013. Having been acclaimed the grandest sports event in Eastern Europe since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, President Putin ordered a total of 12 stadiums in 11 cities to be built or rebuilt at such a cost surpassing South Africa’s 6 billion and Brazil’s 11 billion, making it the biggest investment for the sake in history.
The front line of the 2018 World Cup is in the midst of ferocious battles. Teams from 32 countries have taken turns to stage fantastic games at Russia’s 12 stadiums.
Quite a number of football fans just could not help to clock in Russia and experience the spectacularity on the twelve sites themselves. While for the most of you, let’s just have a glimpse of their charm from upper space. Follow the images taken by Jilin-1 Constellation of Chang Guang Satellite Technology.
Satellite imagery shows the twelve stadiums scattered throughout 11 cities of Russia spanning three time zones.
City of Moscow
The first to be nominated is the Luzhniki Stadium, which is the largest stadium in the country and named the chief venue for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The Stadium is located in Russia’s capital city of Moscow, where the heroic and stirring sentiments of Russian people in the film The Barber of Siberia are exposed everywhere in the air. Each part and corner of it reminds you of Pushkin’s poems or Levitan’s paintings, be they the capacious Red Square and luxurious Kremlin, flamboyant Saint Basil’s Cathedral, pinnacles of the old artistic architectures in Stalin’s time, nestling patches of green trees and lush and exotic palace-like subway stations.As early as one month ago, Moscow has been submerged in the glow and fervency of the World Cup, which marked its culmination on the day of the opening ceremony. The opener was kicked off at the Luzhniki Stadium where the host Russian team set off its World Cup expedition.
Situated in the bend of Moskva River in the southwest of the city, the Luzhniki Stadium was once the national stadium of the USSR and is now that of Russia, holding more than 80,000 spectators at once. Water flowing in the Moscow River has fertilized large patches of grasslands, hence the stadium’s name “Luzhniki”, meaning “The Meadows” in Russian and its close ties with football. As a five star stadium of the Union of European Football Association and the largest artificial grass pitch, it has been the home ground of CSKA Moscow, Spartak Moscow and Torpedo Moscow.
Looking over from the Sparrow Hills, the Luzhniki Stadium resembles a flying saucer from outer space landed on the marsh of Moskav River with a special and beautiful exterior design.
During the Russian World Cup from June 14 to July 15, the Luzhniki Stadium will be the arena of the opener, 4 group matches, 1 eight-final, 1 semifinal, finals and the closing ceremony. Russia kicked off a good opener with Saudi Arabia here, overcoming it with 5:0; the defending champion Germany confronted its first powerful opponent Mexico on this battle field; afterwards, Russia also beat Egypt at a dash and go all the way into the top 16 in advance and crowned hot Spain on July 1. Deemed as the lucky ground of Russia team, the long-standing Luzhniki Stadium has nothing for you to be missed.
Satellite Imagery of Luzhniki Stadium. [Photo Courtesy of Chang Guang Satellite Technology]
As a most celebrated sports venue in the country, previously the Grand Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium, the Luzhniki is never a story-less one. The land has enjoyed the glory of UEFA Champions League and also suffered stigma from politically affected Olympic Games. Having towered by the picturesque Moskav River for 62 years, it has witnessed the spectacular historical moments of more than 3,000 international competitions and events including the 1980 Olympics, the climax of the Manchester United Versus Chelsea final of UEFA Champions League, 2013 World Championship Athletics as well as concerts of the Rolling Stones, Michael Jackson, U2 and Red Hot Chili Peppers.
Ahead of the 2018 World Cup in Russia, Billions were spent by the government to support the reconstruction of the venue. In 2013, after holding the World Championship Athletics, it was dismantled to make room for the new one. However, architects were demanded to preserve as best as possible its historical characters and features. After tearing down the interior running track and replacing the old artificial meadow with a natural one, one of the world’s largest sports and entertainment center of a seating capacity more than 81,000 came into being. Now the complex covers a total area of 145 hectares and integrates over 140 facilities including swimming pools on both the north and south sides, sports palace, training fields, comprehensive halls, athletics training center, football ground, tennis ground, competition terrain, shooting court, café and restaurants.
The interior of the Luzhniki Stadium.
Saint Petersburg is called “Venice of the North”.
In Russia, people from St Petersburg and Moscow, fire and water-like in temperament, never take in each other so well. If Moscow is a bottle of ardent vodka, St Petersburg is more of a mild brandy. The once old capital city over the two hundred years of Czarist regime from the age of Emperor Peter the Great till the October Revolution in 1917 has now already become the country’s center of industry, economy, science, culture and transportation. Snuggling with the Baltic Sea and River Neva, the ancient city adopts a unique water town landscape and is dubbed “Venice of the North” with intricate rivers, canals and islands.
Roaming on the streets lined with the peculiar classical Russian buildings, you would feel yourself in another country apart from Russia and are turning over historical pages——the world famous Winter Palace & Summer Palace, Bronze Horseman and Church of Spilled Blood, all telling you the glory and splendor of its past. Home to literature greats like Turgenev, Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy and Ballet the Swan Lake, culture composes its charm and pride.
St Petersburg is also regarded the cradle of Russian football. On Oct 24, 1897, the first officially recorded match was debut in the city and now its team Zenit Saint Petersburg is counted as a big cheese on the platform of Russian Premier League.
Stadium of Saint Petersburg has a design in a space ship by Japanese architecture Kisho Kurosawa.
The stadium of St Petersburg, also Zenit Arena or Krestovsky Stadium, is the north most among the twelve stadiums used for the 2018 Russian World Cup as well as the world’s most expensive and most advanced and beautiful sports venue in Eastern Europe after completed in 2017. The first national football league was established here. In 2017, the opener and finals of 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup kicked off here where in July Germany crowned the champion after beating Chile with 1:0. It will be the permanent home ground for Zenit Saint Petersburg.
Satellite image of Stadium of Saint Petersburg by Jilin-1 Constellation. [Photo courtesy of Chang Guang Satellite Technology]
The stadium will host 7 matches during the 2018 World Cup including four group games, one eighth-final, one semifinal and third place match. Even the starters——group matches are so exciting and anticipated by fans. Group A’s Russia fought its second group fight with Egypt, a key battle to qualify for the next round; Brazil from Group E confronted Costa Rica; and on the morning of June 27, powerful African lion Nigeria roared towards Messi and his Argentina team in Group D.
Reconstructed on the basis of the original Krestovsky Stadium in 2007 with a total investment of 1.7 billion dollars, it became the most expensive football arena in the world, exceeding Britain’s Wembley Stadium. Perhaps, a real space ship would even cost less.
Ten years of construction has made the seven-story and 56.6 meter-high stadium rose with a seating capacity up to 110,000 spectators, five times of that of the Bird’s Nest and eleven of the Water Cube. Technically, it will be a most advanced stadium all over the world, thanks to the round opening and folding dome supported by eight masts, a retractable roof and a moveable pitch. It can hold any type of events at any time of the year regardless of climate changes and keeps a constant 15℃ indoor temperature even in winter; The rolling out meadow can be moved in when a football match is played while out at concerts.
The interior of the Saint Petersburg Stadium.
Russia’s reconstruction and upgrading of the stadiums involve not only hardware like LED flood-lighting & demonstration system, sound system, but smart ones such as WiFi, big data collecting and GNSS & SportVU combined technology to monitor players’ state and evaluate the chance of winning. Top pavilions pay much attention to audience’s experience and technical investment.
Moreover, how to supervise the overall construction of such gigantic and complicated engineers in a timely manner and guarantee the progress is also a big issue. For example, the total floor space under construction of the Luzhniki Stadium reached over 159 hectares including a 5-kilometer long drainage system, 5.4-km sewage one, and more than 76 km long network facilities, 57 km heating ones as well as 22 hectares’ green space.
Satellite remote sensing technology has provided one of the first selected solutions. Free from the disturbance of topographic and ground obstacles, satellite remote sensing observation can constantly detect the same area within a short period, observing intuitively the dynamic changes and the construction progress from the higher space, and sending back all the data in an objective, accurate and timely manner.
Satellite data also has an advantage in facilitating supervision of large construction projects, enabling administers in real-time monitoring of the site’s security, quality and progress, and troubleshooting hazards and quality and progress defects.
As a competent recorder, proper satellite image gathering and administration guarantees the successful completion of projects.
The independently developed Jinlin-1 constellation by Chang Guang Satellite Technology has played a vital role in monitoring the construction of the Ashkhabad Olympic Stadium in Ashgabat, Turkmen. The Stadium was launched in 2003 as a multi-purpose stadium and rebuilt in 2013-2017 for the bid for the Olympic Games. Jilin-1 has made a recording of the construction of the newly-built comprehensive stadium between April of 2016 and May of 2017.
The upgrading and rebuilding of sports stadiums is a combination between sports and neo technologies and innovations. Technical investment and application will contribute to beautiful and modernized venues and foster spectators’ experience and operator’s management, among which the satellite remote sensing technology will also become a powerful tool in monitoring project construction by virtue of its excellent remote sensing image processing, visual analytics, identifying and tracking and information extraction technologies.